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  • Jalandhar

About

It is the oldest city in Punjab situated at a distance of about 84 kms southeast of Amritsar on the G.T road going to Calcutta. Jalandhar is India's foremost producer of sports goods. Its steel and iron re-rolling mills, rubber goods,surgical instruments,handtools, electric goods, automobile parts, and sewing machine factories and handloom products are also very famous. Today, it is a major rail and road junction and an army cantonment. This city has twelve kots and twelve gates. It is one of the biggest centres of the vernacular press in India, most of the vernacular papers, magazines in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu are published here. The renowned newspapers are Hind Samachar, Punjab Kesri, Jag Bani, Partap & Veer Partap, Ajit, Nawan Zamana and Milap.

Location

Jalandhar is a city in Jalandhar District in the state of Punjab, India and municipal corporation in Jalandhar district. It is located 144 km northwest of the state capital, Chandigarh. It was known as Prasthala at the time of the Mahabharta and as Jullundur in British India. Jalandhar is located on the intensively irrigated plain between the Beas and Sutlej rivers. The city, which has major road and rail connections, is a market for agricultural products. Manufactures include textiles, leather goods, wood products, and sporting goods. Jalandhar was the capital of Punjab from India's independence (1947) until Chandigarh was built in 1953.Jalandhar is situated at 710 31’ East and 300 33’ North at a distance of 140 kms from state capital Chandigarh. It is at a distance of 360 Kms from Delhi on Delhi-Amritsar Highway. It is surrounded by Ludhiana district in East, Kapurthala in West, Hosiharpur in North and Ferozepur in South. It is well connected by road and train. Nearest Airport is RajaSansi Airport, Amritsar at a distance of 80 kms.

Origin Of Name

The district is named after Jalandhar, a demon king, who finds a mention in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of lav, son of Rama. According to yet another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar' means area inside the water, i.e. tract laying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas, still another name of Jalandhar had been Trigartta, as it was waters by three rivers, Satluj, Beas and Ravi

District Administration and Division

The Jalandhar District consist of 5 tehsils/subdivisions viz. Jalandhar-I, Jalandhar II, Nakodar, Phillaur and Shahkot. Besides, there are 5 sub-tehsils, viz. Adampur, Bhogpur, Kartarpur, Goryan and Nurmahal. The district is divided into 10 development blocks, viz, Jalandhar East, Jalandhar West, Bhogpur, Adampur, Nakodar, Shahkot, Phillaur, Nurmahal, Lohian and Rurka Kalan. According to 2000-2001 figures of District Statistical Office, the district has 956 inhabited villages.

City of Basti, Kots and Gates

The town as it grew up to 1947 had the characteristic of its own. It had 12 kots, 12 gates and 12 bastis. The Kots were predominantly Hindu while bastis were mostly Muslims. The kots, which also mean Mohallas. Each Kot had its own gate. Only a few of these basties, Kots and gates have so far survived. Jalandhar a town of antiquity, and a seat of government several times in the past, regained its lost glory of ancient times in 1947 when following the partition it was made the administrative headquarter of Punjab but lost too soon when the administrative offices were shifted first to Shimla and finally to Chandigarh.

Culture

Hindu festivals and celebrations such as Dasara and Diwali are as enthusiastically observed, as are the birth and death anniversaries of the gurus and saints. To the Sikh community, the festival of Baisakhi, celebrated in the month of April, is of special significance because on this day in 1689 Guru Govind Singh organised the Sikhs into Khalsa or pure one. In the countryside farmers start harvesting with great jubilation. The Bhangra dance is a common sight in the villages. Punjabi is the main language, while Hindi and English are also commonly used.

Climate

The climate of this district is on the whole dry except during the brief south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from the middle of November to early part of March. The succeeding period upto the end of June in the summer season, July, August and first half of September constitute the South-West monsoon season. The period from middle September to the middle of November is the post monsoon or transition period. Although tehsil Phagwara is in the Kapurthala District, for the description of climate the same has been included in the Jalandhar district.

Rain Fall

The average annual rainfall in the district is 703.0 mm. The rainfall in the district in general increases from the south-west towards the north-east and varies from 551.3 mm at Nakodar to 892.3 mm at Adampur (Aera-obsy). About 70 per cent of the annual normal rainfall in the district is received during the period July to September, July being the rainiest month. Some rainfall is received mostly as thunder showers in June and in association with passing western disturbances in the cold season. The variation in the rainfall from year to year in the district is appreciable. In the 80 year, 1901 to 1980, the highest annual rainfall amounting to 181 per cent of the normal occurred in 1917. The lowest annual rainfall which was 55 per cent of the normal occurred in the year 1905. In the same period, the annual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 22 years

On an average, there are 36 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. The number varies from 30 at Phagwara to 45 at Adampur (Aera-obsy). The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded at any station in the district was 304.8 mm at Jalandhar on 18 August 1878.